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Jordan Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Written by Admin. Posted in Renewable Energy

Jordan Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Initial National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Anthropogenic Emissions by Sources and Removals by Sinks of all Greenhouse Gases not Controlled by Montreal Protocol.

Source: Initial Communication Report under the UN Framework Convention on the Climate Change. Published by The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan The General Corporation for the Environment Protection (GCEP). Executive Summary. January 1997.

 

 

Potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jordan

Written by Admin. Posted in 2011, Dead Sea And Arava Science Center, I.Greens, Renewable Energy

The potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jordan was studied. For this purpose, 10 sites were selected based on the available solar radiation data. According to the annual amount of water output, the selected sites can be divided into three different categories: the first one, which includes Taffieleh, Queira, H-4, and H-5, is considered to be ‘‘adequate’’ for solar water pumping. Their annual amount of water output forms about 62% of all water pumped from all the 10 sites combined. Among the four sites included in this first category, Taffieleh has the highest potential. Not only can the most annual amount of water pumped be obtained from this location, but also the largest monthly amount of water—except for the month of March—during the year. Furthermore, about 51% of the annual amount of water pumped at Taffieleh is during the summer months (May– September), when the water consumption is the highest and water pumping is a necessity. The second category, which includes Ras Muneef, Mafraq, and Hasa, is considered to be ‘‘promising’’. Its water output adds up to about 29% of all water pumped from all sites. The third category, including Deir Alla, Baqura, and Wadi Yabis, is considered to be ‘‘poor’’. Only about 9% of the water pumped from all sites combined can be obtained from these three locations.

This article is availble to purchase online here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148104000114

Communication Report on Climate Change

Written by Admin. Posted in 1997, Renewable Energy

This report explains the efforts done by the government of Jordan in order to satisfy the UN framework convention on climate change (1997), it talks about challenges, achivements and goals.

 

1. National Circumstances
2. Macro-Economic Performance
3. Expenditures on GDP in 1994
4. Sectoral Performance in 1994
5. Balance of Payments
6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 1994
7. Energy Sector 12
8. Renewable & Indigenous Energy Sources
9. Existing & Future Supply Options
10. Energy & Electricity Demand Forecast
11. Steps to Implement UNFCCC
12. Financial and Technological Needs and Constraints
13. Adaptation Measures and Response Strategies
13.1 Energy
13.2 Transport
13.3 Industry
13.4 Agriculture
13.5 Waste Management
List of Tables

  1. Table (1) National Circumstances
  2. Table (2) Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 1994
  3. Table (3) Initial National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Anthropogenic Emissions by Sources and Removals by Sinks of all Greenhouse Gases not Controlled by Montreal Protoco
  4. Table (4) Difference in Volume and Cost of Distribution Losses
  5. Table (5) Simulated Comparison between Electricity Consumption
  6. of Existing and Restructured Distribution System
  7. Table(6) Investment Levels

 

Thirsting For Justice

Written by Admin. Posted in 2009, Amnesty International, Water Forum

Palestinian access to water restricted- An Amnesty report.

Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) do not have access to adequate, safe water supplies. This long standing problem has significantly hindered social and economic development in the OPT and denied many communities their rights to an adequate standard of living and to food, health and work. Palestinian per capita water consumption remains below acceptable international standards for the protection of public health. Chronic water shortages affect crucial aspects of life including hygiene, agricultural and industrial activities, and livestock rearing.

The Aral Sea and the Dead Sea: Disparate lakes with similar histories

Written by Admin. Posted in 2010, Water Forum, Wiley Online Library

Abstract:

In spite of significant differences in their sizes, depths, salinity and other properties, the Aral Sea and the Dead Sea share many features, as illustrated by a comparison of the histories of both water bodies. Fifteenth and early sixteenth century maps, based on the ‘Geography’ of Ptolemy, contain both lakes. The first successful limnological surveys of the lakes were made in the same year 1848, when Alexey Butakov explored the Aral Sea and William Lynch mapped the Dead Sea. Paintings and drawings by Taras Shevchenko (Aral Sea) and David Roberts (Dead Sea) document the landscapes around the lakes in the first half of the 19th century. The water balance of both lakes has been strongly negative in the past decades, leading to a decreased water surface area and volume for both lakes, their increased salinity and deterioration of their local infrastructures. Complex and expensive mitigation schemes have been proposed for both lakes, based on the import of large quantities of water from distant sources via canals or pipelines (i.e. Siberian rivers or Caspian Sea to supply water to the Aral Sea, Mediterranean Sea or Red Sea, to be connected with the Dead Sea). Less dramatic solutions to improve the local situations already have resulted in improved water quality in the Aral Sea, and partial restoration of its fisheries. In contrast, the Dead Sea remains much too saline to support higher forms of life. Nevertheless, a biblical prophecy predicts that even this most hypersaline of all lakes will eventually be teeming with fish of many kinds.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1770.2010.00436.x

Available Online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1440-1770.2010.00436.x/abstract

Basin Closure and Environmental Flow Requirements

Written by Admin. Posted in 2008, Water Forum

ABSTRACT: A river basin is referred to as ‘closed’ when all its river flow is allocated to different uses. Water requirements of freshwater-dependent ecosystems, often referred to as ‘environmental flow requirements’, only recently started to receive attention. This ‘user’ is still often neglected in river basin management. This paper discusses the place of environmental flow requirements in basin water resources, examines a global pattern of closed/closing river basins and advocates the need to set environmental requirements in advance of major basin developments. It is also suggested that to ensure sustainable water resources development in the future, it is necessary to revise the content of ‘basin closure’ by explicitly introducing environmental flow requirements into basin water management and supporting it with relevant policies.

DOI:10.1080/07900620701723729

Available Online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07900620701723729

 

Troubled Waters- Palestinians Denied Fair Access To Water

Written by Admin. Posted in 2009, Amnesty International, Water Forum

 

Lack of access to adequate, safe, and clean water has been a longstanding problem for the Palestinian population of the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT).2 Though exacerbated in recent years by the impact of drought-induced water scarcity, the problem arises principally because of Israeli water policies and practices which discriminate against the Palestinian population of the OPT. This discrimination has resulted in widespread violations of the right to an adequate standard of living, which includes the human rights to water, to adequate food and housing, and the right to work and to health of the Palestinian population. The inequality in access to water between Israelis and Palestinians is striking. Palestinian consumption in the OPT is about 70 litres a day per person – well below the 100 litres per capita daily recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) – whereas Israeli daily per capita consumption, at about 300 litres, is about four times as much.

Management and conflict aspects of waters between Palestine and Israel

Written by Admin. Posted in 2009, academicjournals.org, Water Forum

Palestine utilizes four groundwater basins, three of which are transboundary or shared waters. Palestine is a riparian country in the Jordan River but it is denied its water rights. Palestine and Israel signed an interim water agreement in 1995 (called Oslo II accord) and a final agreement is yet to be negotiated and signed. There is still a serious conflict between Palestine and Israel over water resources whether they are either endogenous or shared. This conflict is about water rights and management of these water resources. This conflict has to be settled and solved in the final status negotiations between the two parties.

Israel’s Sanitary Quality of Drinking Water

Written by Admin. Posted in 2000, Public Health Services, Water Forum

Published by the state of Israel, ministry of health, Public Health Services, Environmental Health Division.

Table of Contents:

  • Definitions ……………………………………………………………………. 2
  • Water designated unfit for drinking …………………………………… 3
  • Fluorid concentrations in water ……………………………………….. 5
  • DISINFECTION OF WATER ………………………………………………. 6
  • DRINKING WATER SOURCES …………………………………………… 6
  • CLEANING AND DISINFECTING A WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM … 6
  • WATER STANDING IN A POOL …………………………………………. 7
  • TESTING THE WATER IN A WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM ………….. 7
  • Parameters Affecting Public Health ………………………………….. 10
  • Organic Micro-Pollutants — Pesticides & Herbicides …………… 12
  • Fluoride Concentrations by Climatic Area …………………………. 14
  • Frecuency of Water Supply System Sampling and Testing …….. 15
  • TIMING OF PERIODIC TESTING OF WATER SOURCES …………. 19
  • RADIOACTIVE RADIATION …………………………………………… 20